Saturday, August 20, 2011

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. No more extra time will be given.

The diagram below shows the typical stages of consumer goods manufacturing, including the process by which information is fed back to earlier stages to enable adjustment.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the process shown.

  • You should write at least 150 words.
  • Example Answer:
  • Most consumer goods go through a series of stages before they emerge as finished products ready for sale.
  • Raw materials and manufactured components comprise the initial physical input in the manufacturing process. Once obtained, these are stored for later assembly. But assembly first depends upon the production planning stage, where it is decided how and in what quantities the stored materials will be processed to create sufficient quantities of finished goods. The production planning stage itself follows the requirements of the goods' design stage that proceeds from extensive research. After assembly, the products are inspected and tested to maintain quality control l Those units that pass the inspection and testing stages are then packaged, despatched and offered for sale in retail outlets. The level of sales, which is the end point of the manufacturing process, helps determine production planning.

    A product's design is not only the result of product research, but is also influenced by testing and market research. If the testing stage (after assembly and inspection) reveals unacceptable problems in the finished product, then adjustments will have to be made to the product's design. Similarly, market research, which examines the extent and nature of the demand for products, has the role of guiding product design to suit consumer demands which may change with time. Market research, while influenced by product sales, also serves to foster future sales by devising suitable advertising for the goods.

    Thus the reality of consumer goods manufacturing goes well beyond a simple linear production process.


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.No more extra time will be given.

Eating sweet foods produces acid in the mouth, which can cause tooth decay. (High acid levels are measured by low pH values)

Describe the information below and discuss the implications for dental health.

You should write at least 150 words
Example Answer:

Anyone who has visited a dentist has been told that eating excessive amounts of sweets risks harming the teeth. This is because sweets lower pH levels in the mouth to dangerous levels.

When the pH level in the mouth is kept above 5.5, acidity is such that teeth are unlikely to be in danger of decay. Sweet foods, however, cause pH in the mouth to drop for a time, and the longer pH levels remain below 5.5, the greater the opportunity for decay to occur.

By comparing fruit sugar, cane sugar and honey, which are all common ingredients of sweet foods, we find that cane sugar lowers pH levels for the longest period, thus producing the greatest risk of the three. Approximately five minutes aftfter consuming cane sugar, pH levels drop to as little as pH 3.5. They then begin to rise slowly, but do not rise above pH 5.5 until at least 30 minutes have elapsed. By contrast, fruit sugar, which causes the mouth's acidity to fall to just above pH 4, poses a danger for a shorter period: tooth decay is unlikely 20 minutes after consumption. Honey appears an even less risky substance. Though acidity falls to about pH 4.75 within five minutes of consumption, it returns to above pH 5.5 in under fifteen minutes.

The implications, then, are that people who insist on eating sweet foods should be aware of the ingredients, and that fruit sugar or honey appear preferable to cane sugar.

(242 words)


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. No more extra time will be given.

The graphs below show the numbers of male and female workers in 1975 and 1995 in several employment sectors of the republic of Freedonia.

You should write at least 150 words.

Example Answer:

The two decades between 1975 and 1995 brought significant changes in the representation of women in Freedonia's work force, according to the graphs.

In 1975, for example, some 300 000 men and 250 000 women worked in the communications sector. Twenty years later, though the number of men remained unchanged, the number of women rose to 550 000.

A similar situation was seen in the wholesale and retail trade sector, where the number of women rose from about 550 000 in 1975 to almost 800 000 two decades later. The number of men in this sector remained stable over the period, at around 700 000.

Women also made gains in both the finance/banking industries and in the defence-related public sector. Whereas some 125 000 women worked in finance and banking institutions in 1975, the number increased to 450 000 by 1995. The number of men grew only marginally from 425 000 to 480 000 over the same period. In defence, the number of men declined from 225 000 to 200 000, while the number of women rose from 25 000 to over 100 000.

Two sectors that retained stable employment numbers for both men and women were manufacturing, which had about 300 000 women and 650 000 men in both surveyed years, and the public sector (non-defence), which employed 650 000 women and 850 000 men.

Thus, women appear to have made gains in the Freedonian work force but not at the expense of men.

(243 words)


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. No more extra time will be given.

The graphs below show the types of music alb

ums purchased by people in Britain according to s3x and age.
Write a report for a university lecturer describin

g the information shown below.

  • You should write at least 150 words.
  • Example Answer:

    The three graphs provide an overview of the types of music people purchase in the UK. At first glance we see that classical music is far less popular than pop or rock music.

    While slightly more women than men buy pop music, the rock market is dominated by men with 30% buying rock, compared to 17% of women. From the first graph we see that interest in pop music is steady from age 16 to 44 with 20% of the population continuing to buy pop CDs after the age of 45.

    The interest in rock music reaches its peak among the 25 to 34 year olds, though it never sells as well as pop. Interest also drops off after the age of 35 with an even sharper fall from age 45 onwards, a pattern which is the opposite to the classical music graph.